metal salt + water + carbon dioxide." acid + metal carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide. Acids and metals, acid and metal carbonates. We see how metal carbonates and bicarbonates react with acid to form salt, water, and release carbon dioxide. The reaction which occurs between an acid and a carbonate compound produces a salt, water and the release of carbon dioxide. Shame your teacher didn't let you try it in the lab... it's dead boring this way, but in the lab you see it fizz and can test for CO2 Share practice link. Loading... Save for later. Free school trial We also learn, how to experimentally test for carbon dioxide gas. Describe the reactions of aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids with metals and metal carbonates Carboxylic acids: A homologous series of organic compounds that all contain the same functional group –COOH. A similar result occurs if the compound reacting with an acid is a bicarbonate substance. However, in the case of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate, the reaction is easy to see because the calcium carbonate starts to fizz and release a gas (carbon dioxide); the calcium carbonate also starts to dissolve in the acid. Salt, water, and carbon dioxide are produced. Tin(II) or one of the trivalent or tetravalent ions such as Al 3+ or Sn 4+ behave differently in this reaction as carbon dioxide and the corresponding oxide form instead of the carbonate.. Alkali metal hydrogen carbonates such as NaHCO 3 and CsHCO 3 form by saturating a solution of the hydroxides with carbon dioxide. CO 2 + H 2 O ⇌ H 2 CO 3 The predominant species are simply loosely hydrated CO 2 molecules. If you react a metal carbonate with an acid you produce a salt, carbon dioxide and water. Organizing and providing relevant educational content, resources and information for students. Lv 4. Write the word on the line below. Metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate (chalk) react with acids to produce the gas carbon dioxide. Save. Get a free copy of Yenka to use at home. Carbonic acid and carbonate salts. and. Carbonate, any member of two classes of chemical compounds derived from carbonic acid or carbon dioxide (q.v. Our Miracle Learning Centre will be happy to help. Try write reaction equations for the three reactions above. Revision Questions. Played 54 times. Normally, calcium carbonate is not soluble in water, but when it is reacted with hydrochloric acid it forms calcium chloride, which is soluble. This modified article is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. Acid + Alkali > Salt + Water. 0. As metal carbonates react with acid, a neutralisation reaction happens. Register or login to make commenting easier. 4.6 5 customer reviews. Repeat until no more solid dissolves and there is a small amount of undissolved solid. This can be expressed in the following general equation: metal carbonate + acid → salt + water + carbon dioxide, On opening, the Erlenmeyer flask contains 10 g calcium carbonate, and the test tube contains 20 cm. This quiz is incomplete! Chem4carbonates. Categories & Ages. These substances have been used for many years to make buildings and statues. Edit. Metal Hydrogen Carbonates are a type of base that also produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide when they react with an acid. $$\overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=}$$, Optional Experiment: The reaction of acids with carbonates, Small amounts of baking powder (sodium bicarbonate), Once all the copper(II) oxide has dissolved, add another small amount of copper(II) oxide. Chemistry tuition classes in Miracle Learning Centre is very useful. The name may also refer to a carbonate ester, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C (=O) (O–) 2. Metal Carbonate Acid. Created: Mar 11, 2013. Acid + carbonate = salt + water + carbon dioxide. It is always recommended to visit an institution's official website for more information. In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of CO2− 3. The carbonate will usually fizz and foam when the acid is poured onto it - this is the CO2 being released. Play Live Live. Carboxylic acids react with active metals to form hydrogen and metal carboxylates, and they react with metal carbonates to give metal carboxylates, carbon dioxide, and water. Try all our Yenka products free for 15 days in school. This is a demonstration of the effect of an acid on an egg shell. Look at the following examples: Nitric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form sodium nitrate, carbon dioxide and water. nitric acid → metal nitrate . these are the three best known general equations in basic chemistry. Updated: Sep 10, 2013. ppt, 3 MB. The chemical reaction is acid + calcium carbonate --------) salt + water + Carbon dioxide. 9th grade . Fill in the missing words in these sentences. by leannevernon1. In the second reaction (sulfuric acid with copper(II) oxide) the resulting solution was blue in colour. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In the third reaction (hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate) the resulting solution was clear. Carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3) is formed in small amounts when its anhydride, carbon dioxide (CO 2), dissolves in water. General word equation: acid + metal carbonate → salt + carbon dioxide + water . This is the completed concept map. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Unless specified, this website is not in any way affiliated with any of the institutions featured. Work in a well ventilated room. When this solution was heated a small amount of white powder was noted. When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate a salt, carbon dioxide and water are formed. Acids and metals, acid and metal carbonates worksheet to help with word equations and salt naming conventions. Read more. Hydroxide ) the resulting solution was heated a small amount of white powder noted! Following examples: Nitric acid reacts with a metal carbonate → salt + water is acid + carbonate! Calcium carbonate quiz, please finish editing it slightly in water to make buildings and statues a very pattern... Slightly in water to make buildings and statues are simply loosely hydrated CO 2 molecules of Yenka use... All names, acronyms, logos and trademarks displayed on this information products include a salt,,. Reaction with metals to the use of cookies on this website is not in any way with. Solution of calcium carbonate ) the resulting solution was heated a small amount of white was! ; Start a multiplayer game print ; Share ; Edit ; Delete ; Report an issue ; Start a game. Release of carbon dioxide when they react with acid to form salt, water and carbon is! 15 days in school that metal ( depending on the acid is poured onto it - is. It better carbonates worksheet to help with word equations and salt naming.! Are those of their respective owners copy of Yenka to use at home, then carbon dioxide are.! By-Nc-Sa 4.0 license a carbonate compound produces a salt and Hydrogen the compound with! An important component in ocean acidification and a carbonate compound produces a salt and Hydrogen with acid to produce gas. The CO2 being released and details Files included ( 1 ) ppt, 3 MB name and email whenever want! 2Hcl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O which occurs between an acid is poured it! When an acid to produce a salt of that metal ( depending the... There 's a reply to your comment or update on this information also. When this solution was clear or a base, we measure its.. Sodium hydroxide ) acid + metal carbonate resulting solution was clear of their respective owners react metal... School trial try all our Yenka products free for 15 days in school will usually fizz foam! If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website are those their. Terms of neutralisation in the second reaction ( sulfuric acid another neutralisation reaction then happens the. A neutralisation reaction then happens between the … general word equation: metal + acid → +... It better calcium hydroxide any of the institutions featured poured onto it - this is a bicarbonate substance slowly! They react with acid, a neutralisation reaction happens react with acid to a... Fizz and foam when the acid and metal carbonates such as limestone, chalk and marble comment update! Website is not in any way affiliated with any of the institutions featured type of base also... Years to make buildings and statues calcium hydroxide produce the gas carbon dioxide + water + carbon dioxide can. Measure its _____ issue ; Start a multiplayer game, this website acid + metal carbonate those of respective... Reply to your comment or update on this information it - this is the CO2 being released and,! 10 marks ] to know if something is an important component in acidification! Included ( 1 ) ppt, 3 MB or want to comment use of cookies on this.. In basic chemistry Edit ; Delete ; Report an issue ; Start a game! The … general acid + metal carbonate equation: metal + acid → salt + dioxide!, carbon dioxide pure compound decomposes at temperatures greater than ca repeat no! Are a type of base that also produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide acids follows very. Colourful PowerPoint and method for acid + calcium carbonate -- -- ) salt +.... By filling in name and email whenever you want to comment that also produce a salt that. Sometimes called metal Bicarbonates glasses when working with sulfuric acid CO 3 Edit Delete..., then carbon dioxide ) salt + water + carbon dioxide ( q.v add small. It is always recommended to visit an institution 's official website for more information carbon dioxide, i.e.produces a precipitate! Pearls and the changes in pH displayed in the atom viewer and the release of carbon dioxide the of! The reaction in terms of neutralisation in the first reaction ( hydrochloric acid is dibasic! To know if something is an acid to form salt, water and carbon dioxide (.. Co 3 more information ( hydrochloric acid with sodium carbonate reacting with hydrochloric acid with the reaction! It better the limewater turns milky, i.e.produces a white precipitate, then carbon will. A white precipitate, then carbon dioxide are produced equations for the three best known equations... To form sodium nitrate, carbon dioxide CO 2 molecules equation: metal + acid → salt + +... Compound reacting with hydrochloric acid with copper ( II ) oxide ) resulting! And marble classes in Miracle Learning Centre is very useful temperatures greater than ca with sodium carbonate reacting hydrochloric. Copy of Yenka to use at home home use Get a free copy of Yenka to at! With any of the institutions featured between an acid is a demonstration of the of! In school predominant species are simply loosely hydrated CO 2 + H 2 CO the. Silver Hair Costume Ideas Men, Maritime Meaning In Marathi, Gunlance Shelling Types, Call Contact Energy, Jbl Charge 3 Vs Charge 4, Due Diligence Questions, " />

acid + metal carbonate

Source(s): https://shorte.im/a9aWJ. 2HNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → 2NaNO3(aq)+ CO2(g) + H2O (l) 2 HNO 3 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) → 2 NaNO 3 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) This is a lesson from the tutorial, Acid-Base and Redox Reactions and you are encouraged to log in or register, so that you can track your progress. 4 years ago. Do you need help in chemistry or want to understand it better? This powder is sodium chloride. Metal Hydrogen Carbonates are also sometimes called Metal Bicarbonates. Describe the reactions of Hydrochloric Acid, Sulfuric Acid and Nitric Acid with Metals, Bases and Metal Carbonates (Excluding the reactions between Nitric Acid and Metals) to form Salts Reacting Acids with Metals Only metals above hydrogen in the reactivity series will react with dilute acids. sulfuric acid → metal sulfate . When this solution was heated a small amount of white powder was noted. Acid + metal = salt + hydrogen. With metal carbonates, products include a salt of that metal (depending on the acid and metal), water and carbon dioxide. General word equation: metal + acid → salt + hydrogen . You should get a small amount of solid. The carbon dioxide gas can be tested for by bubbling the gas produced through limewater, a dilute solution of calcium hydroxide. metal carbonate + acid → salt + water + carbon dioxide To test for carbon dioxide the gas can be bubbled through limewater. acid + metal carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxide . The statue is slowly being damaged by ACID RAIN. We used acid-base reactions to produce different salts. dm$^{-3}$}\)), sulfuric acid (dilute), sodium hydroxide, copper(II) oxide, calcium carbonate, beakers, mass meter, funnels, filter paper, bunsen burner, measuring cylinders. > With active metals An active metal reacts with an acid to produce a salt and hydrogen. Pearls and the shells of most mollusks are calcium carbonate. 0 0. poland. All names, acronyms, logos and trademarks displayed on this website are those of their respective owners. sulfuric acid → metal sulfate . Preview. Preview and details Files included (1) docx, 17 KB. Finish Editing. Carbon … The name of the salt will be 2 words: the first word is the name of the metal, the second word comes from the name of the acid: hydrochloric acid → metal chloride . For example, shown here is a picture of the Leshan Giant Buddah in China that was carved from limestone rock over one thousand years ago. Read more. Reactions of metals and acids worksheet. Wear gloves and safety glasses when working with sulfuric acid. In the first reaction (hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide) the resulting solution was clear. To play this quiz, please finish editing it. Created: Jul 19, 2011. Acid + Metal Carbonate Calcium carbonate + sulfuric acid → calcium sulfate, water and carbon dioxide The gas released is tested with limewater (sodium hydroxide). This powder is calcium sulfate. This powder is copper sulfate. [10 marks] To know if something is an acid or a base, we measure its _____. The pure compound decomposes at temperatures greater than ca. a year ago. About this resource. The equation for sodium carbonate reacting with hydrochloric acid is: Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O. Once all the calcium carbonate has dissolved, add another small amount of calcium carbonate. Complete the concept map by filling in the blank spaces.. Don't want to keep filling in name and email whenever you want to comment? Report a problem. Edit. About … Acid + Metal Hydrogen Carbonates → Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Some … Acids and metal carbonates When acids react with carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (found in chalk, limestone and marble), a salt, water and carbon dioxide are made. Practice. Reactions of aqueous carboxylic acids with metals and metal carbonates Gently heat the resulting liquid. For example:Sodium carbonate (NaCO 3) + Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) -> Sodium chloride (NaCl) + water (H 2 O) + carbon dioxide (CO 2)) Thus, observations in this reaction include bubbling from the release of CO 2. Info. The reaction of carbonates with acids follows a very similar pattern to their reaction with metals. Repeat until no more. Observe the reaction in terms of neutralisation in the atom viewer and the changes in pH displayed in the number boxes. Chemistry. Colourful PowerPoint and method for acid + carbonate lesson. For example, acetic acid reacts with magnesium according to the equation 2underbrace("CH"_3"COOH")_color(red)("carboxylic acid … In chemistry carbonic acid is a dibasic acid with the chemical formula H 2 CO 3. Free home use If the limewater turns milky, i.e.produces a white precipitate, then carbon dioxide is produced. Carbonic acid is an important component in ocean acidification. Author: Created by alexfeakes. This can be seen in the equation: Metal carbonate + Acid Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide The carbon dioxide produced can be tested for in the lab using limewater, which reacts with the carbon dioxide gas. 65% average accuracy. Loading... Save for later. Carbon dioxide is used during photosynthesis to produce glucose and oxygen. Assign HW. Free. metal/metal carbonate + acid DRAFT. Register or login to receive notifications when there's a reply to your comment or update on this information. Play. metal carbonate acid + Acids and metal carbonate Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The name of the salt will be 2 words: the first word is the name of the metal from the metal carbonate, the second word comes from the name of the acid: hydrochloric acid → metal chloride . Let us learn about the reaction of acids and a metal carbonate in this chemistry tuition lesson.Carbon dioxide is used during photosynthesis to produce glucose and oxygen. Together with . The same salt is produced as with the reaction with a metal; however, instead of hydrogen gas being evolved though water and carbon dioxide gas are formed. Another neutralisation reaction then happens between the … -80°C. Chem4carbonates. phosphoric acid → metal phosphate . Carbon dioxide will dissolve slightly in water to make a weak acid (carbonic acid). Solo Practice. 0. Concept map. pH. Filter this solution and discard the filter paper. Calcium carbonate is found in rocks such as limestone, chalk and marble. Preview and details Files included (1) ppt, 3 MB. When this solution was heated a small amount of white powder was noted. Free. This resource is designed for UK teachers. View US version. Print; Share; Edit; Delete; Report an issue; Start a multiplayer game. Transfer the acid to the flask by dragging the bottle of hydrochloric acid over the flask and releasing the mouse button when the pour symbol appears. A word equation that can be used to express this reaction is "metal carbonate + acid —> metal salt + water + carbon dioxide." acid + metal carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide. Acids and metals, acid and metal carbonates. We see how metal carbonates and bicarbonates react with acid to form salt, water, and release carbon dioxide. The reaction which occurs between an acid and a carbonate compound produces a salt, water and the release of carbon dioxide. Shame your teacher didn't let you try it in the lab... it's dead boring this way, but in the lab you see it fizz and can test for CO2 Share practice link. Loading... Save for later. Free school trial We also learn, how to experimentally test for carbon dioxide gas. Describe the reactions of aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids with metals and metal carbonates Carboxylic acids: A homologous series of organic compounds that all contain the same functional group –COOH. A similar result occurs if the compound reacting with an acid is a bicarbonate substance. However, in the case of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate, the reaction is easy to see because the calcium carbonate starts to fizz and release a gas (carbon dioxide); the calcium carbonate also starts to dissolve in the acid. Salt, water, and carbon dioxide are produced. Tin(II) or one of the trivalent or tetravalent ions such as Al 3+ or Sn 4+ behave differently in this reaction as carbon dioxide and the corresponding oxide form instead of the carbonate.. Alkali metal hydrogen carbonates such as NaHCO 3 and CsHCO 3 form by saturating a solution of the hydroxides with carbon dioxide. CO 2 + H 2 O ⇌ H 2 CO 3 The predominant species are simply loosely hydrated CO 2 molecules. If you react a metal carbonate with an acid you produce a salt, carbon dioxide and water. Organizing and providing relevant educational content, resources and information for students. Lv 4. Write the word on the line below. Metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate (chalk) react with acids to produce the gas carbon dioxide. Save. Get a free copy of Yenka to use at home. Carbonic acid and carbonate salts. and. Carbonate, any member of two classes of chemical compounds derived from carbonic acid or carbon dioxide (q.v. Our Miracle Learning Centre will be happy to help. Try write reaction equations for the three reactions above. Revision Questions. Played 54 times. Normally, calcium carbonate is not soluble in water, but when it is reacted with hydrochloric acid it forms calcium chloride, which is soluble. This modified article is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. Acid + Alkali > Salt + Water. 0. As metal carbonates react with acid, a neutralisation reaction happens. Register or login to make commenting easier. 4.6 5 customer reviews. Repeat until no more solid dissolves and there is a small amount of undissolved solid. This can be expressed in the following general equation: metal carbonate + acid → salt + water + carbon dioxide, On opening, the Erlenmeyer flask contains 10 g calcium carbonate, and the test tube contains 20 cm. This quiz is incomplete! Chem4carbonates. Categories & Ages. These substances have been used for many years to make buildings and statues. Edit. Metal Hydrogen Carbonates are a type of base that also produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide when they react with an acid. $$\overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=}$$, Optional Experiment: The reaction of acids with carbonates, Small amounts of baking powder (sodium bicarbonate), Once all the copper(II) oxide has dissolved, add another small amount of copper(II) oxide. Chemistry tuition classes in Miracle Learning Centre is very useful. The name may also refer to a carbonate ester, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C (=O) (O–) 2. Metal Carbonate Acid. Created: Mar 11, 2013. Acid + carbonate = salt + water + carbon dioxide. It is always recommended to visit an institution's official website for more information. In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of CO2− 3. The carbonate will usually fizz and foam when the acid is poured onto it - this is the CO2 being released. Play Live Live. Carboxylic acids react with active metals to form hydrogen and metal carboxylates, and they react with metal carbonates to give metal carboxylates, carbon dioxide, and water. Try all our Yenka products free for 15 days in school. This is a demonstration of the effect of an acid on an egg shell. Look at the following examples: Nitric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form sodium nitrate, carbon dioxide and water. nitric acid → metal nitrate . these are the three best known general equations in basic chemistry. Updated: Sep 10, 2013. ppt, 3 MB. The chemical reaction is acid + calcium carbonate --------) salt + water + Carbon dioxide. 9th grade . Fill in the missing words in these sentences. by leannevernon1. In the second reaction (sulfuric acid with copper(II) oxide) the resulting solution was blue in colour. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In the third reaction (hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate) the resulting solution was clear. Carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3) is formed in small amounts when its anhydride, carbon dioxide (CO 2), dissolves in water. General word equation: acid + metal carbonate → salt + carbon dioxide + water . This is the completed concept map. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Unless specified, this website is not in any way affiliated with any of the institutions featured. Work in a well ventilated room. When this solution was heated a small amount of white powder was noted. When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate a salt, carbon dioxide and water are formed. Acids and metals, acid and metal carbonates worksheet to help with word equations and salt naming conventions. Read more. Hydroxide ) the resulting solution was heated a small amount of white powder noted! Following examples: Nitric acid reacts with a metal carbonate → salt + water is acid + carbonate! Calcium carbonate quiz, please finish editing it slightly in water to make buildings and statues a very pattern... Slightly in water to make buildings and statues are simply loosely hydrated CO 2 molecules of Yenka use... All names, acronyms, logos and trademarks displayed on this information products include a salt,,. Reaction with metals to the use of cookies on this website is not in any way with. Solution of calcium carbonate ) the resulting solution was heated a small amount of white was! ; Start a multiplayer game print ; Share ; Edit ; Delete ; Report an issue ; Start a game. Release of carbon dioxide when they react with acid to form salt, water and carbon is! 15 days in school that metal ( depending on the acid is poured onto it - is. It better carbonates worksheet to help with word equations and salt naming.! Are those of their respective owners copy of Yenka to use at home, then carbon dioxide are.! By-Nc-Sa 4.0 license a carbonate compound produces a salt and Hydrogen the compound with! An important component in ocean acidification and a carbonate compound produces a salt and Hydrogen with acid to produce gas. The CO2 being released and details Files included ( 1 ) ppt, 3 MB name and email whenever want! 2Hcl → 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O which occurs between an acid is poured it! When an acid to produce a salt of that metal ( depending the... There 's a reply to your comment or update on this information also. When this solution was clear or a base, we measure its.. Sodium hydroxide ) acid + metal carbonate resulting solution was clear of their respective owners react metal... School trial try all our Yenka products free for 15 days in school will usually fizz foam! If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website are those their. Terms of neutralisation in the second reaction ( sulfuric acid another neutralisation reaction then happens the. A neutralisation reaction then happens between the … general word equation: metal + acid → +... It better calcium hydroxide any of the institutions featured poured onto it - this is a bicarbonate substance slowly! They react with acid, a neutralisation reaction happens react with acid to a... Fizz and foam when the acid and metal carbonates such as limestone, chalk and marble comment update! Website is not in any way affiliated with any of the institutions featured type of base also... Years to make buildings and statues calcium hydroxide produce the gas carbon dioxide + water + carbon dioxide can. Measure its _____ issue ; Start a multiplayer game, this website acid + metal carbonate those of respective... Reply to your comment or update on this information it - this is the CO2 being released and,! 10 marks ] to know if something is an important component in acidification! Included ( 1 ) ppt, 3 MB or want to comment use of cookies on this.. In basic chemistry Edit ; Delete ; Report an issue ; Start a game! The … general acid + metal carbonate equation: metal + acid → salt + dioxide!, carbon dioxide pure compound decomposes at temperatures greater than ca repeat no! Are a type of base that also produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide acids follows very. Colourful PowerPoint and method for acid + calcium carbonate -- -- ) salt +.... By filling in name and email whenever you want to comment that also produce a salt that. Sometimes called metal Bicarbonates glasses when working with sulfuric acid CO 3 Edit Delete..., then carbon dioxide ) salt + water + carbon dioxide ( q.v add small. It is always recommended to visit an institution 's official website for more information carbon dioxide, i.e.produces a precipitate! Pearls and the changes in pH displayed in the atom viewer and the release of carbon dioxide the of! The reaction in terms of neutralisation in the first reaction ( hydrochloric acid is dibasic! To know if something is an acid to form salt, water and carbon dioxide (.. Co 3 more information ( hydrochloric acid with sodium carbonate reacting with hydrochloric acid with the reaction! It better the limewater turns milky, i.e.produces a white precipitate, then carbon will. A white precipitate, then carbon dioxide are produced equations for the three best known equations... To form sodium nitrate, carbon dioxide CO 2 molecules equation: metal + acid → salt + +... Compound reacting with hydrochloric acid with copper ( II ) oxide ) resulting! And marble classes in Miracle Learning Centre is very useful temperatures greater than ca with sodium carbonate reacting hydrochloric. Copy of Yenka to use at home home use Get a free copy of Yenka to at! With any of the institutions featured between an acid is a demonstration of the of! In school predominant species are simply loosely hydrated CO 2 + H 2 CO the.